Press Releases, Systems Thinking

Food systems account for at least 15% of all fossil fuels burned globally, new research shows; urgent transformation needed

  • Oil companies are manoeuvring to lock in food’s dependence on fossil fuel-based pesticides, fertilizers, and plastic packaging.
  • COP28 host, oil-producing UAE, says it will make food a key priority, but this must not be used to distract from the need to phase out fossil fuels.
  • Global Alliance for the Future of Food urges policymakers and funders to acknowledge the interdependence and act on food and energy in tandem. 

New analysis published today by the Global Alliance for the Future of Food and Dalberg Advisors finds that food production, transport, and storage account for at least 15% of fossil fuels used annually (4.6 Gigatonnes CO2-equivalent), driving at least as many emissions as all EU countries and Russia combined. This is the first time that researchers have estimated the global use of fossil fuels across the entire food supply chain—from farm to plate. Even if all governments delivered on their 2030 climate pledges, fossil fuel use in our food system would still blow our 1.5C carbon budget by 2037.

As the use of fossil fuels for transport and power declines with the uptake of renewable energy, the report also reveals how the fossil fuel industry is investing heavily in petrochemicals to make plastics, pesticides, and fertilizers in order to lock-in the dependence of food systems on high-carbon energy. Investments in petrochemicals worth USD 164 billion were projected for 2016-2023 in the US alone. Food-related plastics and fertilizers together represent approximately 40% of petrochemical products. 

Patty Fong, Programme Director at the Global Alliance for the Future of Food, said: “Industrial food systems have a fossil fuel problem. To prevent catastrophic climate breakdown, we need to urgently wean our food systems—alongside other economic sectors—off fossil fuels. Shifting away from fossil fuel dependency towards renewable energy and regenerative and agroecological farming would not only protect our planet, but make food more affordable, enhance food security, create jobs, improve health, and help tackle hunger.”

Ahead of COP28, the report calls on policymakers and donors to phase out the use of fossil-fuel based agrochemicals; shift to renewable energy for food processing; reassess subsidies to biogas and biofuel producers; address corporate consolidation among the food industry and petrochemical and plastics companies; and invest in sustainable farming practices such as agroecology and regenerative agriculture. It also calls for greater collaboration between policymakers, investors, funders, civil society, and researchers on food and energy issues—experts who are currently too often siloed in research approaches.

Alex Cheval, Associate Partner of Dalberg Advisors, said: “Current trends—such as the growing consumption of processed foods —will only entrench industrialized food systems’ dependence on fossil fuels. But there are steps we can take now to reduce this reliance, as well as a clear opportunity to transform food systems for the good of society and the environment.” 


Notes to Editors
  • For further information or to arrange an interview, please contact Katie Dominy at di:ga Communications on +44(0) 798 353 0990 or
  • High-resolution photos and farmer case studies are available.

About Global Alliance for the Future of Food: The Global Alliance for the Future of Food is a strategic alliance of philanthropic foundations working together and with others to transform global food systems now and for future generations. We believe in the urgency of transforming global food systems, and in the power of working together and with others to effect positive change. Food systems reform requires new and better solutions at all scales through a systems-level approach and deep collaboration among philanthropy, researchers, grassroots movements, the private sector, farmers and food systems workers, Indigenous Peoples, government, and policymakers. 

About Dalberg Advisors: Dalberg Advisors is a strategic advisory firm that works collaboratively across the public, private and philanthropic sectors to fuel inclusive growth. With 26 offices and clients in more than 90 countries, Dalberg Advisors blends global ideas and innovations with the local practicalities and partnerships.